Reduce energy needed for HVAC, Lighting: Always have more people inside, use heat emitted by their bodies to warm enclosed places.
Urge people to share spaces, devise smaller places, rearrange space distribution, inculcate habit to use smaller spaces for activities like sitting, sleeping, eating, working etc. Make rules to attain this only if needed.
Quantum of body heat ! It's 100W/hr.
During Nazi rule many detainees were transported in closed goods wagon, at end of 6-8 hrs short journey, of those hapless detainees many died. High temperature, high humidity due to overcrowding was thought to have considerably contributed to this.
Heat from human bodies will reduce requirement for heating saving energy spent on heating enclosed premises.
Go LED-Solar further, no need for common electricity for lighting.
Using Fruit-Seeds (now wasted) for most beneficial purposes for planet & mankind to grow fruit-trees is best step towards circular economy. Parts of plants & fruits unused by mankind, except seeds which should be used to grow fruit-trees, can form good manure, fertilizer; easier than dealing with human &/or animal excreta, increase green cover with seeds themselves, involve easily all age groups in collecting storing & distributing the seeds. So this is best initial step.
If implemented diligently this Mission would during 35 yrs sequester carbon, provide green cover, free fruits for everyone to eat, especially the around 15% BPL segment and surplus fruits be used as free raw material by future unemployed to make jams, jellies etc. in an ongoing manner.
What actions do you propose?
"Black is Beautiful" & So is the White !
O Somerville Artists! help surge the Beauty of Black & White !
O "The Eyes of Connoisseurs"! see just this Right !
1)Implementing premises, organizations, persons be given Transferable tax concessions, rebates, reduced price, price hierarchy, for demonstrated energy savings/unit space, using existing meters.
Adopt energy (electricity&/or gas) consumption per unit space (in a graded manner) as a useful tool & create cost-hierarchy linked to socioeconomic status to encourage energy efficiency, involve utilities in evolution of this tool.
2)Future buildings may incorporate these objectives in building codes to avail benefits
3)Campaign to urge people to use body heat more productively.
4)Painting the interior white would retain heat & light within the space reducing energy consumption.
Painting the exterior of building (including roof-top) Dark/Black consistently absorbs heat, transfers to & prevents loss from interior.
As average high temperature of Somerville does not exceed 83 °F, no great problem in summer.
Natural heat source to heat building!
http://www.homeinsight.com/home-value/ma/somerville.asp & \http://e3network.org/papers/NRDC_state_emissions_report.pdf clearly says the average heating degree days for MA are more than 6000 & cooling degree days less than 400, so white paints with low solar absorption & high emissivity (aS/E very low) to paint interior and black paints with high solar absorption & high emissivity (aS/E nearer to/>1) to paint exterior will help.
White inner-surface & black/dark exterior-surface window curtains to minimize energy flow to & absorb heat from exterior will optimize the heat absorption & retention in buildings.
Come summer just reverse the faces of curtains; nothing costly be replaced/added!
Curtains can be secured to window frame using velcro for still air sheet creation, increasing insulation.
Furniture, cushions, beds, clothes, items in prolonged human close/skin-contact be dark colored for thermal comfort.
Rationale-- Nearly one-third of energy consumed in the USA is from residential heating, cooling, and lighting. Residential and commercial buildings account for almost 39 percent of total U.S. energy consumption and 38 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. HVAC, Lighting & Water-heating are principal components as they constitute more than 50% energy consumption by the buildings. http://www.c2es.org/technology/overview/buildings
January 16, 2008, researchers from Troy, New York's Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute announced creation of darkest material on the planet which reflects only .045 percent of light, created from carbon nanotubes stood on end. This is 1/30 of light reflected by the current standard for blackness, and 1/3rd of light reflected by the previous record holder for darkest substance.[Wiki]
0.045 multiplied by 30= 1.35% of energy is reflected by standard black colour, white reflects more than 80%. So it makes very good sense to paint the exterior of buildings black/dark to gain exterior heat and the interiors white to retain that generated by human bodies, reducing heating costs.
50-80% heat loss is through roof, walls and windows http://www.yourhome.gov.au/passive-design/insulation so painting the exterior including roof dark/black and interior white would help keep heat and light within premises.
Black absorbing 90% of incident heat from exterior and shifting some to interior (snow would reflect more radiant on to exterior) and white helping retain it within the space as it would reflect 90%. Loss through windows being 10-20%, white interior with black exterior curtains would help prevent losses.
Ambient external & internal temperatures, wind speed, type of wall material, size/internal space of dwelling units and the number occupants with period occupancy, will determine the exact quantum of heat emitted and spread within the unit; as information is unavailable further calculations can be undertaken only at local level.
Total heat production of an "average" person at rest per hour is 58.2 x 1.8 = 104.76 = 105 watts (18.4 x 19.368 = 356.37 = 356 Btu's per hour). ( http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/studentdownloads/DEA3500notes/Thermal/thcondnotes.html )
D. Morton. Human Locomotion and Body Form. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD, 1952.Human energy expenditures for selected activities. Activity Kilocal/hr Watts-- sleeping 70 81; lying quietly 80 93 sitting 100 116; standing at ease 110 128; conversation 110 128; eating meal 110 128; strolling 140 163; playing violin or piano 140 163; housekeeping 150 175.carpentry 230 268; hiking, 4 mph 350 407; long distance run 900 1,048; sprinting 1,400 1,630.
Sleeping under NETS (mosquito-nets) would further the cause of body heat utilization as there would be an envelope within the dwelling envelope, further advantage being protection from insect bites! Dual benefit ! Moisture released by body would also help.
Exercise in any form within the premises is thus advisable.
Proper adequate Insulation, draft-sealing-ventilation of building are usual concerns; non-flammable, non-toxic, eco-friendly durable recyclable materials of proper R &/or U value as retrofits or during construction are most favored materials but cost is an issue. Insulation & painting of attics, cellars, garages & piping system would help curb losses during transmission.
This be done with minimum monetary burden, disturbance & inconvenience to common people.
Read between Lines; http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/15771.pdf & http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34430.pdf both concur!
Be aware- insulation of walls & black/white paints can interact. Internal wall insulation painted interior white may help retain but wouldn't gain exterior heat; external insulation would prevent gain.
All that glitters may not be, but, old could be, GOLD
Airflow management & sealing the draft-currents should be balanced considering ventilation needs & humidity factor.
Arrangements to automatically/manually temporarily shunt out of heating/cooling grid the unused part of building for specified daily periods of non-use to reduce energy consumption.
Hot water supply system geared to give an end-point water temperature tolerably warm (neither too hot/cold) to reduce energy wastage optimizing water-heating.
Setting temperature to level at which persons need to wear woolen/warm clothes even when inside buildings will save electricity needed for heating; people wear summer-like attire inside the building! will help sheep rearer, facilitate transfer of heat from exterior, utilize body heat better & reduce emissions.
Likewise setting air-conditioning temperature to a higher point during summer, no need of blankets, reduce cooling costs.
About 90% fuel used for heating being fossil fuel reductions to help greatly reduce GHG emissions.
Consider Heat Recovery Ventilation at buildings/places with high human turnover!
LED use for lighting purposes, emits less heat, allows better body heat use, reduces energy expenditure, eco-friendly, durable.
Integrating PV-solars with LED lighting would be very efficient. No need for conventional electricity for lighting, be off-grid for Lighting.
Rationale-- Lighting constitutes 12% & 25% of energy expenditure of residential & commercial buildings respectively, as per 2006 survey.
Of the 420,452,383 kWh sale of electricity this would be 18,028,740+66,758,475=84,787,215 kWh saved!!! Whopping 20.17% saved !!!
LED lights be used in underground mines to reduce cooling needs & energy consumption.
With 73% electricity being produced using natural gas, oil & coal, the inconvenience due to fluctuating prices would be reduced with reduction in carbon foot-print. http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/doer/pub-info/ne-01-2011-profile.pdf
http://www.mapc.org/led-street-lighting says LED streetlights in city reduce energy usage from 4,182,994 kWh by 50%, GHG by 863 tons; so, savings from 84,787,215 kWh due to LED-SOLAR in buildings be 20.30 Times compared to Street-light LED alone! GHG down by whopping 17519 tons/3,996,985/-lbs! Money-Saved- US$8.5 million/-annum (@10c/kwh), for city; 183 households at median city income sustained annually! savings enough to run Free Insulation-Draft-Sealing Program for entire city! (from one part of proposal)
LED+Solar system for lighting only purposes would be smaller, easier & cheaper as Panel size, number & battery size would be smaller & less costly. Given the Insolation daily average-3.58 (1.4to5.47) this seems best.
2008 Sentry Equipment Corporation in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, USA, was able to light its new factory interior and exterior almost solely with LEDs. Initial cost was three times more than a traditional mix of incandescent and fluorescent lamps, but extra cost was recovered within two years via electricity savings.
2009 Chennai office of Indian IT company, iGate, spent INR3,700,000 (US$80,000) to light 57,000 sq ft (5,300 m2) of office space with LEDs; firm expected new lighting to pay for itself fully within 5 years.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED_lamp).
Assistance for LED-Solar lighting in LIHEAP to greatly help city. Persons spending to install be given corresponding/proportionate transferable refund/rebate in utilities payment &/or taxes so the rentees will be encouraged to adopt eco-friendly measures.
City authorities arranging mass/bulk purchase, installation and deducting installments will further reduce cost.
6)Generate good employment in Building-Painting & LED-Solar sections, City Council may arrange training in these sectors for currently unemployed.
5)Methods to help the city use organic waste to obtain combustible gas for public &/or domestic use are possible. Possibility of bio-gas use to heat up buildings, generate electricity should be explored.
(Water Science & Technology: Water Supply Vol 7 No 1 pp 219–227 © IWA Publishing 2007 doi:10.2166/ws.2007.025
The road not taken: how traditional excreta and greywater management may point the way to a sustainable future
P. Bracken*, A. Wachtler**, A.R. Panesar** and J. Lange***
Part of manure used locally and part sold to generate profits to fund city development further.
Fruit seeds however be excluded from waste and be used to grow fruit-bearing trees everywhere in & around city
"Swami Vivekananda Fruit-Trees Expansion Mission" would over 35 years, sequester carbon, increase green cover, fruit-trees' biodiversity, give free fruits for everyone to eat, especially the 15% BPL segment and surplus fruits may be used as free raw material by about 5% unemployed, in future, to make jams, jellies etc. in an ongoing manner, more sustained dietary-nutritional-health and employment-economic benefits! More the better!
6)The 21st ranking windiest city with an average wind speed of 12.4 mph may additionally use wind-mills to generate electricity and add considerably to target of carbon neutrality.
7)Try to recover the energy in water in overhead tanks.
8)"Energy from, for & by the City" be the Motto. TARGET ZEBs.
Who will take these actions?
Governments, businesses, other organizations and individuals
1)to reorganize their offices recreation centers homes to achieve this
2)in future only those buildings that incorporate this aspect to get sanction for building construction
3)City Council may decide the teams to lead efforts in this direction.
Mankind, inspired by farmers, saving & using fruit-seeds now wasted to grow more & more bio-diverse fruit-trees, can save climate, planet and itself.
City may set the trend !
What are the key challenges?
"The Whole is More Than Sum of Its Parts".
"wide portfolio of reduction measures would be needed to achieve such emission pathways in a cost-effective way."http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg3/en/ch3s3-3-5-1.html
Given the City Climate, painting the exterior black and interior white, with simple measures to reduce building heating/cooling & water heating energy requirements would vastly reduce the natural gas/electricity/coal consumption of buildings. (Please see Comment 29 in Comments Section) HVAC & Water-heating reduction in energy usage will be 22.5%.
Add 18.5% reduction in electricity consumption achieved by LED-SOLAR integration for lighting; total reduction of 41%.
Add benefits of Carbon sequestration due to fruit-trees grown & seed-decay prevented by implementing Swami Vivekananda Fruit-Trees Expansion Mission, overall contribution would be even more. (Fruit consumption data needed)
http://www.statista.com/statistics/264001/worldwide-production-of-fruit-by-varietysays World seeded fruit production is about 455 million metric tons, average seed wt.1/20th, 23 million metric tons seeds decay!
Average seed wt. 5gms, 4600 billion seeds! @10% tree formation we get 460 billion trees/year. A tree absorbs 48 pounds/21.8Kg of carbon dioxide/year and sequesters 1 ton of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old; 10 billion tons CO2/year sequestered. 2012-Global-GHG Emissions 34.5 billion tons; Get breathing space by sequestering 10 billion/year.
City may set the trend !
What are the key benefits?
Energy saved could be utilized for other beneficial purposes,
No need to demolish &/or build anything; happy with historic heritage structures ! Maintain the graceful city's heritage structures.
Incentives would encourage people to implement energy efficiency inclination, to avoid wastage of energy, reduce pollution related illnesses, stay healthy!
Successful implementation would help reduce market, policy-planning & customer barriers.
Generate good employment in Building-Painting & LED-Solar sections, City Council may arrange training in these sectors for currently unemployed.
Future buildings would cost less as these would be designed to accommodate more people in smaller space.
Growing fruit-trees would bring benefits in addition to carbon capture & sequestration. Fruits organically grown would give nutritional benefits improving health, longevity & preventing illnesses; surplus fruits used as free raw material for generating food-industry related employment would be a competetive advantage.
The intangible benefits of Swami Vivekananda Fruit-Trees Expansion Mission would be considerable addition.
What are the proposal’s costs?
Reorganization to allow more people in the same enclosed space would not be costly affair.
Painting Black & White wouldn't be costly if City arranges mass scale drive.
LED-SOLAR integration would require some funding support.
Future buildings will cost less.
Optimum balance between number of people & space should be achieved & maintained to avoid overcrowding.
Reorganization of existing premises would not be costly in terms of both time & money.
Painting black/dark & white is possible within one year, reducing heating costs.
20% reduction in total electricity use attainable within one year.
Growth of fruit trees out of seeds spread will be substantial in 35 yrs, increasing sequestration.
Rate of new building construction would determine additions.
Related proposalsSwami Vivekananda Fruit-Trees Expansion Mission for environment, peace, health
Eskimo Igloo is one of the best abodes that effectively use the heat from human activities to keep the abode pleasantly warm.
http://biblehub.com/genesis/1-11.htm New Living Translation
Then God said, "Let the land sprout with vegetation--every sort of seed-bearing plant, and trees that grow seed-bearing fruit. These seeds will then produce the kinds of plants and trees from which they came." And that is what happened.