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An alkaline cloud spraying increases the solubility of CO2 in water, providing CO2 masses deleting by enriched rain droplets.


Description

Summary

Considered here new method proposes to include rains modification for increase the CO2 absorption from atmosphere inside under-cloud volumes. A method proposes the cloud spraying of the small masses of KOH to increase the pH of the clouds’ liquid water content (LWC) up to pH= 8 – 10 units. Water vapor comprises 95% of all greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide and methane are of greater concern. That why the cloud formation or precipitation enhancement is an important method for GHG purification. The CO2 can be easily reduced partly by modified rains; this is cheap because the bulk of the work on clouds formation is performed by nature for free, so it remains to make small additions. Precipitation enhancement methods, which de facto remove water vapor, have been developed in several countries for agriculture and water supply that could serve as a background for this new technology with pH control. Additional arguments are a modern increase of ocean acidity from pre-industrial levels corresponds to pH decrease from 8.3 to 8.1, or less; and rains in industrial regions have led to soils deterioration up to pH = 3 – 4, so pH increase is needed for the nature today. Our recent experiments have shown that the method needs fundamental refinement and search for additional reagents to keep ins inside water, but very high efficiency could be achieved in this way (in comparison with known methods of ‘direct air capture’).


Category of the action

Geoengineering


What actions do you propose?

This method needs both further theoretical development and experiments realization in natural clouds. Different cases for method's utilization are indicated below.

1. Apply alkaline rain over a field or forest that is covered by vegetation in spring, summer and/or autumn.

If this rainfall is applied to a field planted in wheat, for example, it would obviate the need to apply a potassium and organic fertilizer. The process also provides rainfall to the plants that will save the cost of electricity and physical assets for irrigation, because it uses water supplies from natural clouds.

2. Apply alkaline rain over a city.

Typically, a city is a source for CO2 emissions. Therefore, the modified rainfall will solve two problems and produce two results. The first result is a local, relatively short-term purification of the atmosphere from CO2 and cooling to facilitate breathing for those under pulmonary stress. The second result is the ability to effectively collect water obtained with the help of existing urban infrastructure. Collected water may continue to come to the fields for watering plants or miniature special factories based on blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria which have fast grow during increasing pH in water. For example, a known technology is bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) that can be achieved using terrestrial plants and/or marine algae with our method.

3. Use this technique CO2 storage and easy water transportation during the winter under the condition of snowfall. Diffusion of gases, including CO2, passes more slowly in solid ice compared to water. However, the known surface diffusion coefficient of gases in ice is a little less than the value of the diffusion coefficient for water, and modifying clouds which produce snowflakes have many advantages. Snowflakes have many fine needles and a large total surface area for gas absorption, and the time of flight of snowflakes is substantially increased compared with that of raindrops. And, when modified alkaline snow lies on the ground without melting, it increases the absorption of CO2 in accordance with the original stored alkaline reserve. Collecting and transporting snow to a different location for further processing is easy, using conventional methods of Waste Snow removal from the city.


Who will take these actions?

Advanced Data Mining Intl., USA,http://advdmi.com. The ADMi--Messrs. John B Cook (PE, CEO), Edwin Roehl Jr., and Ms. Ruby Daamen engineers each have between 28 and 38 years experience in  working with water quality, soil quality and meteorological data.  Further, ADMi has developed sophisticated models to predict climate change effects, water quality run-off impacts, water resources, soil contamination, and similar applications. A complete set of known Methods for precipitation enhancement have been reviewed widely in the literature with the focus on CO2 removal in the atmosphere. More particularly, fundamental requirements of the treatment of middle-altitude cloud formation, and the experience gained from the demonstration projects will be evaluated in greater detail. Several persons, including Drs. T. Tulaikova and S. Amirova have significant working experience with series first publications in this area of special expertise in theory and cloud experiments. Dr. Paul Comet has substantial expertise in chemical kinetics and applied physics. To perform the field’s experiments will require the use of a small aircraft, and potential pilots and equipment have been determined. New or proven dosing equipment for aerosol spraying will be placed on an airplane to alkaline disperse reagents into areas within clouds. For calculations of the expected level of pH in the receiving sediments, the mass of reagent applied, the predicted rainfall quantity and the soil chemical composition will be analyzed. Thus, all of these various talents will be molded together for the project team’s success. 


Where will these actions be taken?

For the first key experiments the best places are 2 demonstration sites at North Caroline and South Carolina , USA. These sites would be near and far from Atlantic Ocean to use different cloud types in experiments. The research team will create algorithms and special devises to produce and handle all dispersal agents and measuring using OSHA standards intensity in account of a winds/weather/LWC. 


What are other key benefits?

Several additional advantages of the method in comparison with the ocean flat surface for CO2 atmosphere purification. Calculations based on the Marshall-Palmer distribution prove the multiple increases (400 - 500) in the total area of rain droplet ensemble in the sediment layer unit in comparison with flat ocean surface area.

The complete process for establishing the equilibrium concentration by CO2 due to small droplet size; the time of flying for rain droplets exceeds their saturation time by more than 10-20 fold even if the cloud altitude is only 1 km.

A great benefit to sustainability of plant growth by atmospheric alkaline adjustment is illustrated by results from an indoor bench-scale experiments, one image is here. The effect explanation is that the similar useful carbon ions are contained in natural humus.

The method tends to soils restore.


What are the proposal’s costs?

Proposed Budget for the first years of method development.

The project budget is 3 million dollars for 3 – 5 years of the technology development. These finances will be spent on the following items:

-The salary payment for (10) scientists and/or engineers working as needed over the three-year project schedule;

-  Two contracts, one for South Carolina and North Carolina and other  areas, for laboratory monitoring technicians, chemists and instrumentation specialists to obtain series of field data from total monitoring stations for each state and province;

-The cost for manufacture of special devices for dispersing reagent using aircraft;

- Purchase of reagent for dispersal into cloud formations;

- Leasing or contracting with either a university to use radar for assessing cloud characteristics.

-The purchase of the special analytical equipment for accurate measurements of ambient air, water and soil composition;

-The cost of renting airplanes/helicopters/drones to conduct field experiments as proposed;

- Development of new models and detailed calculations; report on demonstration testing.

.Market size can be as large as needed for local region, or applied on a global scale to reduce various levels of carbon in the atmosphere. 


Time line

The first stage (I) aims to work on the theoretical justification and modeling (5 years).Stage II is devoted to the experimental implementation of the method in real cloud by experiments, which will prove the possibility of complete purification of the atmosphere on a kilometer scale, (up to15 years).Stage III proposes the introduction of developed technologies on a national and global scale at different cases of weather/climate/regions (15 years).

The impact schedule.

Each case of modified rain realization will bring the locale CO2 purification and cooling up to several degrees within a few hours, for example, the modified rain can be done over a City at night. As a number of method application increases the purification of the atmosphere will improve at global.


Related proposals

https://www.climatecolab.org/contests/2015/geoengineering-workspace/c/proposal/1331515 

Also CO2 will be saved by more low temperature in water with high pH as I proposed;

https://www.climatecolab.org/contests/2015/geoengineering-workspace/c/proposal/1332402 

Turbulence analysis for my theme is my dream;

https://climatevolab.org/contests/2017/adaptation/proposal/1334077 

Water management initiatives;

There is proposed a new watering technology using (as I have) for local areas;

 


References

  1. Tulaikova, T.; Amirova S. The Effective Possibility for Atmosphere CO2 Purification. Germany: Lap-Lambert 2012.
  2. John B. Cook, Amirova S.R., et.al. An Approach to Removing Large Quantities Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases. A.J. Environ Protection, Sp.Is. 2016; 5:21-25.