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Michael Hayes

Jun 5, 2015
07:47

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The 'history' button is not working. I need to pull up a previous text.

Michael Hayes

Jun 26, 2015
03:52

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Below is a Q&A exchange from; Energy Supply: Chemosynthetic Management of the Water/Energy/Nutrient Nexus-WENN https://www.climatecolab.org/web/guest/plans/-/plans/contestId/1301413/phaseId/1306764/planId/1314306/tab/COMMENTS#addCommentForm Hello Dustin, Thank you for the most knowledgeable and precise questions anyone has ever stepped forward with! I'll directly quote you and respond below: "emanate domain laws stipulate that just compensation must be awarded the party previously in control of the infrastructure being claimed. In the case of fuel pipelines, it could easily be seen under law that the party is entitled to the projected value of fuel transport revenues it expects over the lifetime of the pipeline." I would think that the lifetime economic potential of the pipelines are not factored as the 'lifetime' econmic factors were not included in the original emanate domain capture of the property. Why would private land owners be given one set of economic evaluation factors and pipeline/utility companies another? "If so, this would drastically increase the price of acquiring the pipeline, perhaps far greater than the construction of new bio-reactors and means of transport." The above is most likely not the case yet you raise an obvious point worth further research at the local, state and national level. "I am also under as to whether there would be legal clauses prohibiting emanate domain acquiring infrastructure to be used by a third party, in this case the organization tasked with growing and transporting the algal fuel." The exact legal wording will play a large role in answering the above yet, in general, once the emanate domain is exercised, there are no restrictions as to further use. The land owners can do with the land as they see fit. "I'm also curious as to your proposed means of utilization of the resulting algal fuels (unless I'm mistaken, this wasn't specified)." The algae has a broad array of potential uses. Biofuel and biochar are high on the priority list as together they create a carbon negative scenario. "Namely, are you proposing the fuel is converted to a liquid gasoline alternative for transportation use (thus offsetting the reduction of fuel transport resulting from acquired pipelines)," Yes. "..or that the algae is dried and burned for electrical generation?" Yes. "I'm curious because it ultimately influences the carbon abatement potential of the project. While centralized electrical generation may be equipped with carbon-capture and storage technology, resulting in a carbon-negative fuel, its use as a transportation fuel would render it at-best carbon neutral." True, yet the production/use of biochar factor turns all biofuel production (within the overall production process) C neg. "Thanks for the captivating proposal, and I look forward to seeing how algal fuels evolve to become more present within our energy system (I am particularly interested in their potential as a drop-in aviation fuel)." Yes, aviation and marine fuels will probably be early stage drivers of the overall market potential of the system. Again thank you for your intelligent questions. Michael

Michael Hayes

Jun 26, 2015
03:12

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A number of my proposals ended up having critical parts come up missing or shorted. I'm clueless as to how that happened and this is not the first time this has happened. In an attempt to repair that issue, I' posting here in the comment section a fully completed 'action' section yet it does not have links. A fully complete proposals can be found at; Adaptation: https://www.climatecolab.org/web/guest/plans/-/plans/contestId/1301411/planId/1314308 or Atypical Ideas for Carbon Neutrality: https://www.climatecolab.org/web/guest/plans/-/plans/contestId/1301603/planId/1314313 I recommend going directly to the proposals for proper viewing of the details. What actions do you propose? "Today we need a global Apollo programme to tackle climate change; but this time the effort needs to be international. We need a major international scientific and technological effort, funded by both public and private money.". (Excerpt from: A GLOBAL APOLLO PROGRAMME TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE) The above advocates for massive international concentration of political and capital strength on deployment of solar energy means and methods to achieve the needed CO2 reductions. This position is understandable and supportable. However, carbon neutral energy means and methods, such as solar energy conversion, are no longer adequate to forestall drastic climate change. At this time, the full spectrum of the water, carbon negative energy and nutrient nexus management needs must be factored into any form of 'Global Apollo Programme to Combat Climate Change'. Primary action/principle being proposed: Vast scale use of chemosynthetic and or heterotrophic cultivation of biomass as a means for urban, rural, marine and overall global scale water, energy and nutrient nexus (WENN) management. Funding for this WENN management regimen can be achieved through the use of environmentally focused intergovernmental agreements, market funding instruments and/or non-profit funding programs such as: 1) The most forward leaning intergovernmental climate change mitigation/adaptation agreement is summarized by the US Department of State. In part: Commitment by developed countries to the goal of mobilizing jointly USD $100 billion per year by 2020 from public and private sources, to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation A call to establish the Green Climate Fund, a new multilateral trust fund designed to foster low emission and climate resilient development and catalyze private sector investment. 2) The Green Climate Fund (a): "..the Fund will promote the paradigm shift towards low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways by providing support to developing countries to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change, taking into account the needs of those developing countries particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.". In the non-intergovernmental space, a growing number of important market funding paths are being developed. Such as: 3) Green Bond Principles 2014: Voluntary Process Guidelines for Issuing Green Bonds: 4) World Bank Green Bond "Funding for new technologies that permit significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions" 5) Homeland Security Grants "Strengthen national preparedness and resilience, building a ready and resilient Nation, with the ability to plan, prepare for, and respond to disasters. Proposals for climate resilience coupled with a restructured DHS grant program will help create robust national preparedness capabilities.". 6) "Transforming the Traditional Municipal Bond Market to Finance Environment-Friendly Green Projects" "In 2013 Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S. municipal bond market to issue these so-called green bonds. The offering was so successful that Massachusetts tripled the volume of green bonds offered in 2014, selling $350 million in bonds to individual and institutional investors this month. According to Massachusetts Treasury officials, the demand for green bonds far outpaced the supply. The Treasury reportedly received received $1 billion in buy orders for the $350 million bonds offered. billion in buy orders for the $350 million bonds offered.". 7) ‘Conservation Bonds’ Take Green Financing to the Next Level "Green bonds, as described by the World Bank, “are fixed income, liquid financial instruments that are used to raise funds dedicated to climate-mitigation, adaptation, and other environment-friendly projects.” When issued by multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, or agencies of national governments such as the German Development Bank, such bonds may carry low, or even concessionary interest rates. Furthermore, a number of private financial institutions, attracted by the reliable returns on projects financed by green bonds, have entered the marketplace. The Green Bond market is rapidly growing. First issued by the World Bank in 2007, the green bond market grew to $11 billion in 2013. As reported by the World Bank, some $32 billion of green bonds have been issued by multilaterals, governments and corporate issuers from January through October 2014, and could surpass $40 billion for the year.". 8) Climate Bond Initiative: "Green bonds were created to fund projects that have positive environmental and/or climate benefits. The majority of the green bonds issued are green “use of proceeds” or asset-linked bonds. Proceeds from these bonds are earmarked(link is external) for green projects but are backed by the issuer’s entire balance sheet. There have also been green "use of proceeds" revenue bonds(link is external), green project bonds and green securitized (link is external) bonds.". 9) "The wheels of climate finance are turning: the Green Climate Fund (GCF) will soon start distributing funds through 7 institutions.". "The accredited institutions include the following: Centre de suivi écologique (CSE) from Senegal, which focuses on combating desertification and protecting coastal areas. In 2010, CSE was the first national institution to be accredited and to implement a project through the Adaptation Fund , the first international climate fund to take the pioneering step of accrediting developing country institutions. Fondo de Promoción de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas del Péru (PROFONANPE) that specializes in funding biodiversity conservation and managing protected areas. Like CSE, PROFONANPE is also accredited to the Adaptation Fund. the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), an intergovernmental organization of Pacific Island countries and territories, based in Samoa, which focuses on protection and sustainable development of the Pacific region’s environment the Acumen Fund, Inc. (Acumen), a well-respected private venture capital fund that invests in developing country entrepreneurs and businesses working to alleviate poverty and advance sustainable development. The social impact investment fund works on improving the lives of low income communities in Africa and Asia, especially in healthcare, agriculture and clean energy. Three international organizations were also accredited: the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).". 10) "Major International Research Initiative Launched to Improve Food Security for Developing Countries - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation." (a). "Listening to farmers and addressing their specific needs. We talk to farmers about the crops they want to grow and eat, as well as the unique challenges they face. We partner with organizations that understand and are equipped to address these challenges, and we invest in research to identify relevant and affordable solutions that farmers want and will use. Increasing farm productivity. We support a comprehensive approach to helping smallholder farmers prosper that includes access to heartier seeds, more effective tools and farm management practices, locally relevant knowledge, emerging digital technologies, and reliable markets. We also advocate for agricultural policies that support farmers in their efforts to better feed themselves and their communities. Fostering sustainable agricultural practices. In an era of increasingly scarce resources and growing impact of climate change, we encourage farmers to embrace and adopt sustainable practices that help them grow more with less land, water, fertilizer, and other costly inputs while preserving natural resources for future generations. Achieving greater impact with partners. We are committed to communicating our strategy more effectively and sharing what we’ve learned with grantees and other partners, including governments, nongovernmental organizations, traditional and emerging donors, and the private sector. Our resources, while significant, represent only a fraction of what is needed. Collaborating effectively with others maximizes our collective impact in helping farming families.". The above list of funding paths is not exhaustive and many existing and future environmental focused funding programs can be coupled together to provide a comprehensive list of funding options for all WENN management scenarios ranging from the smallest rural communities; the largest of metropolitan cities; remote rural areas, marine solutions and/or entire global regions. This proposal calls for the creation of a Benefit Corporation (B Corp), with an international scope and benefit mission which can lead the way in the establishing standards and practices associated with WENN local/regional STEM management, funding and policy development. The B Corp mission statement can use modified language found in many bio-energy development related agencies, such as the Department of Energy's Office of Bioenergy Technology, while employing an international perspective. The mission of the Office of Bioenergy Technology is stated as follows: "Develop and transform our renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower through targeted research, development, and demonstration supported through public and private partnerships." The goal of the Office is to develop commercially viable bioenergy and bioproduct technologies to: · Enable sustainable, nationwide production of biofuels that are compatible with today’s transportation infrastructure, can reduce greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum-derived fuels, and can displace a share of petroleum-derived fuels to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil. · Encourage the creation of a new domestic bioenergy and bioproduct industry. The above language can be crafted to reflect the global need for bio-energy independence, climate change mitigation/adaptation, water recovery/creation and bulk nutrient management. Additionally, the final draft of the mission statement should be the subject of a...brief...international debate so as to flush out any strong objections from the STEM, policy or civil society sectors. Once the B Corp is established and the WENN specific funding matrix is customized per specific locations (i.e. cities, rural, marine, regional etc.), multiple on-the-ground projects can be initiated simultaneously around the planet.

Michael Hayes

Jul 1, 2015
02:46

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COMMENTS FROM JUDGES: Thank you once again for your very detailed and comprehensive proposal. We have decided to suggest that you transfer it as it does not directly deal with the application of a carbon pricing system for the U.S. We would recommend that the most appropriate category in the contest is the "Energy-Water Nexus" contest. Very best of luck with your idea!
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