Acoustic influence on atmosphere to enhance the clouds formation with their movement from ocean to continent zones at night.
The problem of high temperature in the summer exists. Even in coastal areas, there is an abnormal heat and a long absence of precipitation, but a lot of big Cities are located on the coasts with more than a million inhabitants. Also today in winter there are now long periods of hypothermia inside the mainland. Both processes are often caused by anticyclones, they probably can caused by a weak mixing of coastal air. The reason can be that superheated air above the ocean rises too quickly today, and this modern airflow also contains more light water vapor (18) than air (29).
The project proposes to develop the methods for stimulation the dry/wet air mixing, also the methods for cloud formation with their movement. The acoustic method can be developed to improve the mixing of air near coast, the formation of result clouds and to move them deeply into the continent. The acoustic beam can be directed upwards and to the mainland at an angle. Mechanism for the accelerated rise of sea air into the atmosphere has several features. Firstly, in the areas of high pressure inside acoustic wave the moisture condenses into small droplets and this ensures the air heating inside the acoustic channel. Thus there is a thermal acceleration of the rise up for air inside acoustic channel. Secondly, the relative pressure changes in the minimum and maximum of an acoustic wave increased due to exponential decrease of air density with altitude. Also, saturated with water vapor sea air when it falls into the zone of the acoustic beam, undergoes by turbulent acceleration to lift and fast condensation. Using these and other advantages of acoustics, one can develop an optimal sound source and antenna to get additional clouds and send them deeply into the continent from coast. Also, precipitation enhancement technologies can be used to form clouds. The night and morning sea breeze is caused by a gradient of temperatures and air pressure and that can help for cloud motion in optimal hours.
Is this proposal for a practice or a project?
What actions do you propose?
Series of artificial rains near world cities and industry centers can bring the cooling and purification by partial removing of the atmosphere greenhouse gases and other pollution. Greenhouse gases, flowing into the atmosphere and oceans, are leading to larger extreme climatic events, rising air temperature, sea levels, ocean overheating with result power hurricanes, or other marked ecological changes. World industry is the source of pollutants and various constituents in the atmosphere that can affect the quality of the air we breathe. In view of the changes to the climate, in particular with respect to the more hot and arid summers, a broader usage of different methods of creating artificial rains seems very useful. The development of methods for the stimulation of precipitation inside natural clouds are based on the fact that a typical cloud can contain thousands of tons of water. The idea of weather modification by precipitation seeding was generated by Irving Irving Langmui in 1937, but it is a time for wide development of the same ideas now.
The most popular methods used today for precipitation enhancement are the sprinkling of hygroscopic particles or a special salt solution for ‘warm’ clouds and the introduction of glaciogenic substances into ‘cold’ clouds to stimulate vapor condensation and cloud droplets grow. Further coalescence processes should be effectively continued with vibrations of the drop ensemble through the application of special acoustical power inside the clouds. The size of the drops of a natural cloud is usually too small for gravity to cause them to fall (sedimentation), but under certain conditions in the atmosphere the cloud develops and becomes rain, and then the droplets grow in size and fall out in the form of precipitation. The combined effect of acoustic and hygroscopic methods seems very promising. The expediency of joint action is that a hygroscopic particle adsorbs water from its surrounding region, ensuring the enlargement of droplets only to an intermediate size (1 - 5 microns). The acoustic effect is most effective for drops of large sizes (5-50 microns) and will give them missing motion in the form of vibration. The droplets will enlarge due to collisions to such dimensions which ensure their further sedimentation under the action of gravity then r >0.1 mm. Thus, conditions are created for rapid coagulation in the cloud and subsequent gravitational precipitation of the drops in the form of rain. The aforementioned methods have been developed and thoroughly studied in experiments in many countries in a world, they have shown good results during stimulation enhancement in clouds.
From practice and elementary calculations it is obvious that rain cools the atmosphere under the cloud by evaporation of water droplets. It is also easy to calculate that the cloud that is present above the city of megapolis, cools the surface of the earth and the air by changing the albedo in reflection and absorption of a part of the incident solar radiation by the cloud.
Artificial rain can also be realized by simply splashing small drops of water from an airplane using a special airplane, such an option has a number of significant advantages. The aqueous mixture before its loading into an airplane and then discharged in the form of water droplets can be modified in a wide range of possible variants, it can be supplemented with chemical or biological components designed to actively remove selectively greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx, CH4, from the atmosphere during the motion of the drops to the ground. Another possibility of modifying this variant of artificial rain is associated, for example, with the introduction of a large amount of oxygen into the water in advance, as water aerosol is dropped, we get an oxygen rain. The greatest cooling of the air will be if the drops of water falling from a small height can completely evaporate, then they cool the atmosphere as much as possible. Moreover, as it approaches the ground, the specific evaporation will increase rapidly due to a decrease in air humidity.
The acoustically influencing for mists and fogs was widely used early but to disperse the fog over the aerodrome. In this project it is proposed to use acoustics for the purpose of cloud formation, it is also well possible. Unfortunately the only industrial aerosols was the central purpose for the acoustical seeding in last century, in 1940 - 1960. There were many plant’s units in these times in USA, Germany, Russia, etc. for acoustical seeding of industry pollution with good results and purification efficiency up to 99%. There were series of publications with theoretical models for the aerosol coagulation by acoustical influence, the most references in our author’s monograph belong to these topics. In particular, the series of experiments were performed with effective influences directly to the fogs and mists. Some experiments were done with rains by high-power acoustical irradiation to the clouds directly from mountain in Russia. However, acoustical method was not widely applied later in practice for clouds due to weak aircraft, and because another method using hygroscopic particles was simple during utilization in clouds. At the same time, the air overheating became strong now with each next year due to effects of global warming at the planet. These additional acoustics possibilities for precipitation enhancement and for cloud creation could serve for fast improvement the weather in local area with 100-kilometers scale, and also appropriate stimulated instability processes could have further distance/time development. The careful study of the available literature of acoustical coagulation of aerosols shows that sound waves for utilization in clouds was not developed enough. Firstly, there are not enough connection of a complete theory with the experiments. This means that most experiments were completed without enough theoretical initiation or explanations; they were performed by different groups of scientists. The main objects for acoustic-based purification were industry aerosols, but no drops in natural clouds and with real conditions (wind, moisture variations, tec.). By the way, the most industry aerosols were successfully purified in practice. The acoustical experiments were only carried out near the ground, but it could be most effective to directly place the sound generator inside a cloud in the region with oversaturated water steam by using a modern aircraft.
It also seems very efficient to place acoustic generators in the coastal zone. Here the atmosphere is much saturated or oversaturated with water vapor. The vapor will quickly condense into the droplets of the clouds inside acoustic fields and near due to clouds motion, which is the goal of this project.
The working plane.
- Development of theoretical models for optimization and implementation of the proposed method for clouds creation and movement into certain direction, taking into account territorial, weather and seasonal features.
- Conduct support laboratory experiments continuously at one or two monitoring sites in the process of project implementation, development, and establish appropriate laboratory results and method standards in advance.
- Conducting field experiments for clouds creation and management using special equipment and special platforms for location of the acoustics generator in a see near the coast. During the next stage of demonstration testing the number of experiments for the clouds formation and their movement to the continent direction will be performed.
Who will take these actions?
The project outlines the complex goals of creating a new method of cloud reorganization in the coastal zone and the creation of new technologies that allow the distribution of these clouds from the ocean to the interior of the continent for cooling. This is a great work that can be done by a set of profile organizations and specialists. The cooperation for the implementation of this project may include universities, science institutes and firms that deal with the study of clouds and atmosphere. The development of acoustic methods and special instruments and generators should be involved. The experimental and theoretical study includes the work of individual theoretical scientists. The great leader of the work can be, for example, NOAA, as one of the most competent and respected organizations in the world in the field of environmental studies. This is particularly useful in the late stages of the project involving the number of experiments. The author of this proposal also wants to participate in such a project as a theoretical scientist in order to analyze and suggest various approaches to solving the project tasks described above.
Where will these actions be taken?
Actions on the application of this method can be carried out in coastal regions at different continents and islands. The most expedient application of this method in the equatorial regions of the planet, where there are elevated temperatures in summer and people suffer from heat. Many cities with more than a million inhabitants are located near the coasts of the seas and oceans. Therefore, the development of methods for creating cloudiness and its directional displacement can significantly improve the ecology of a large part of the world's population. It should also be taken into account that the development of acoustic methods of impact on the clouds is not difficult and expensive, there are many analogs for the creation of optimal acoustic generators. In general, this industry has a great foundation. What is lacking is that the public believe in the necessity of such works today, as well as the need for more extensive real measures to improve the environment, in general.
The actual scope and nature of the work towards this project can be characterized as the systematization of previous studies, the writing of specific instructions and the organization of several experimental sites to begin such work. As the experience is gained from the first experimental sites, new plots and new coastal cities will join it, a new industry will appear, new jobs for engineers, the planet's ecology will improve, the air will be cleared and the average temperature of the planet will be reduced by increasing the number of clouds.
In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.
What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?
It is known that in the northern hemisphere of the planet more than 90% of the population lives. Also 50% of the population is located at altitudes up to 200 m above sea level. It is known that about 30% of the population lives at a distance of no more than 50 km from the coast.
Thus, it is obvious that the weather and comfortable climate in coastal areas affect a huge number of people, including the efficiency of their economic activities, industry, agriculture, cattle breeding.
The ability to control clouds, precipitate at the right time, or lower the temperature and adjust the albedo in these areas will change life greatly and significantly reduce the surface overheating for all planet.
The greatest absorbing capacity is possessed by open water under sun. The seas and oceans absorb about 95% of the sun's rays arriving at their surface, that is, the albedo of water is 5%. The albedo of clouds varies from a few percent to 70-80% depending on the power of the clouds, on average about 60%. Thus, it is obvious that the creation of additional artificial clouds will greatly reduce the influx of solar energy to the earth due to its reflection by clouds.
What are other key benefits?
Another global advantage can be considered improving the health, mood and performance of people in a cool climate under the cloud compared to the hot scorching sun.
Each city will receive its own advantages, since the city government can easily prove and calculate the means spent on creating clouds in the coastal zones. Thus, the city government will easily and clearly show its own contribution to the fight against global warming.
It can be calculated energy savings from no need for air conditioning in the whole city or country, and other economic benefits could be indicated.
What are the proposal’s projected costs?
1. Global Cost should be estimated later.
2. Commercialization Pathway.
Market size can be as large as needed for local region, or applied on a global scale.
The most economical way to broadly implement this approach is the 2-5 coastal sites at first stage and further method widening in time. Estimated cost for local or global implementation of the method can vary considerably. The approach for implementing the method requires the first stage proposal for development of this idea with theory and first laboratory experiment at 1-2 local sites. The first project stage could be performed by small firm, these cost are estimated here below.
Proposed Budget, Associated Project Plan, and Scope of Work for firm at first stage.
The project budget is 3 million dollars for 2 – 3 years of the technology development. These finances will be spent on the following items:
- The salary payment for (10) scientists and/or engineers working as needed over the three-year project schedule;
- Two contracts, one for South Carolina and North Carolina or other areas, for laboratory monitoring technicians, chemists and instrumentation specialists to obtain series of field data from total monitoring stations for each state and province;
-The cost for manufacture or purchase of the special acoustic devices for clouds formation;
- Leasing or contracting with either a university to use radar for assessing cloud characteristics.
-The purchase of the special analytical equipment for accurate measurements of ambient air, water and soil composition;
-The cost of renting airplanes/helicopters/drones to conduct field experiments as proposed;
- Purchase of additional reagent for dispersal into cloud formations;
- Development of new models and detailed calculations; report on demonstration testing.
I. The first stage (I) is aimed at work on the theoretical justification and modeling of this method. In part, this has already been done and is reflected in publications on this topic. Also, during the first stage, initial experiments will be conducted to form clouds at 1 or 2 specially organized sites in the coastal zones.
II. Stage II is devoted to a wide experimental implementation of the method in the clouds, and regular experiments in different weather and climate conditions and on several sites. In parallel with the conduct of such an experiment, measurements of the albedo and composition of atmospheric air before and after the application of the method of cloud formation will be carried out. Carrying out this experiment will show the possibility to mitigate global warming on the planet, the effectiveness of the method can be estimated from the results of these experiments as a result the number of additional artificial clouds including the duration of their action. The implementation time for this stage is 1 to 5 years.
III. Stage III offers the introduction of the developed technologies on a global scale. The implementation time can be more than 5 - 15 years.
About the author(s)
Ph.D. Tamara Tulaykova is a first author of idea and initial publications. She was born in Moscow, Russia. She graduated Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (www.mipt.ru) in 1977. In 1978-1996 worked at Prokhoriov’s General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) (http://www.gpi.ru/eng/index.php) where she received the Ph.D. Degree in 1985 in the area of physical devices. Under her scientific guidance the series of students and Ph.D. students performed their dissertation works, she is the author of lecture courses. Her science abilities are atmospheric processes, precipitation enhancement, climate, sensors, lasers, optics, fiber optics, micro mechanics. She is an individual researcher now. She is an author of 140 published papers, 10 patents and 5 monographs.
1 T.Tulaikova, A.Michtchenko, S.Amirov. Acoustic rains. 2010, Physmathbook, Moscow, 143p.
2 Tamara Tulaikova, Svetlana Amirova. Acoustical Method and Device for Precipitation Enhancement Inside Natural Clouds. Science Discovery. Special Issue: New Technical Ideas for Climate Recovery. Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 2015 , p.18-25. DOI:/j.sd
3 Richard O. Claus, Tamara V. Tulaikova. New Methods for Helicopter for Free Flight Inside Clouds and Precipitation Enhancement. American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue: New Technologies and Geoengineering Approaches for Climate. Vol. 5, No. 3-1, 2016, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2016050301.11
4. T.Tulaikova. “Fiber-optical sensors for ecology usage”, 2011, LAP-LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany, 205p.
5. Tamara Tulaikova. The way to eliminate and prevent the icing for rotors of the helicopter inside the clouds". Patent ? 2541548 RU, issue date 24.07.2013, Russia.
6. Tamara Tulaikova, Armin Krishnan, Svetlana Amirova. Acoustical method for precipitation stimulation inside natural clouds. IAMO –forum 2008, June25-28 at Halle, Germany, Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-3-938584-29-3 (CD).
7. Tamara Tulaikova, Svetlana Amirova, Alexandre Michtchenko. Micro Physical Model for Glaciogenic Particles in Clouds for Precipitation Enhancement. American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue: New Technologies and Geoengineering Approaches for Climate. Vol. 5, No. 3-1, 2016, pp. 10-16. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2016050301
8. A.I. Korshunov, Tulaikova T.V. The analysis of acoustic disturbance on the ice crystals in the atmosphere with the purpose of stimulation of precipitation from natural clouds. Proceedings, The 53 scientific conference Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. Part ??? Aerophysics and space research., v.2, 2010. Dolgoprudny Moscow. Region p.44-47
9. Tulaikova T.V.., Goryunov B.G.., A.I. Korshunov, Loginov M.YU., E.A. Alexandrova, Ibragimov R.R.. Analysis of the methods of cooling and purification of the atmosphere due to the impact of the clouds with the purpose of intensification of precipitation. Modern aspects of humanitarian operations in emergency situations and in armed conflict. Proceedings of the XIV international conference, may 20, 2009, Moscow, EMERCOM of Russia. FGU VNII GOCHS ?.277-281.
10. Gladun A.D., Tulaikova T.V. , Artificial reins for cooling and purification of the atmosphere. Rus. J. Science technology, V.9, 2008, N.3, p.94-96.