Airborne introduction of sand to hurricanes in order to reduce their power. by Advanced Data Mining Int. LLC, USA
The novel atmospheric modification method is proposed to reduce wind speed in hurricanes in advance to get their power attenuation.
Novel atmospheric modification method is proposed to reduce wind speed in hurricanes with subsequent weakening of their power. To achieve this result, a 1000 cubic meters of sand should be added to the hurricane epicenter by aircraft or with missiles. To note, today record of carrying capacity for 1 airplane is about 250 tons, so this method is real and will require about 4 - 5 aircraft or sorties.The mechanism of air flow decreasing is based on air friction at great total surface of added grains of natural sand. As a result the 10-30% part of hurricane energy should be spent on moving the sand and overcoming additional frictional forces related to sand grains, so initial hurricane power will be decreased after this treatment. Initial analysis and calculations of the Stokes force with related friction energy were carried out and show good outlook for proposed method . Firstly, this project topic is the stand development to do the key experiments in laboratory to follow the dynamics of the main parameters changes after introducing of particles to air flow. Secondly, the theoretical consideration will be performed to extrapolate the experimental data obtained from the scale of the laboratory to the real conditions of a hurricane over ocean. The results of this study will be fully described in reports and in scientific publications in order to give recommendations on the implementation of the method of adding airborne particles in order to reduce hurricane power in advance before approaching the coast.
Is this proposal for a practice or a project?
What actions do you propose?
Background and project description
1.When an aerosol is introduced into the cloud, two different processes can occur that interfere with each other and lead to diametrically opposite results for the development of the cloud and precipitation from it. The first well-studied process is used today to get precipitation enhancement [2-3]; the most popular methods for precipitation enhancement are the sprinkling of hygroscopic particles or a special salt solution for ‘warm’ clouds and the introduction of glaciogenic substances into ‘cold’ clouds to stimulate vapor condensation onto droplets at low temperature. In the most cases this method core is a fast condensation on a smallest hygroscopic salt particles that was introduced in cloud from airplane, and result water drops cloud grow in size to fall out in the form of precipitation. This first process can acts as a strong interference to second process that is the novel project method; here particles should not be increased in size to avoid a subsequent gravitation fall. Sand they should fly in air flow to produce the surface Stokes friction for a long time. In another words, one task in this project is the search of sand’s treatment technologies for the particles do not collect water on their surface. In order to prevent moisture condensation on sand, at first, the grain size must be sufficiently large. Today, precipitation enhancement technologies [2-3] sowing with hygroscopic particles are well studied and are used; traditional hydrophilic salt particles have diameters of 2 to 50 microns for clouds that have high liquid water content, more than 1 gram per cubic meter. We proposed intermediate-sized hydrophobic particles of sand for this method; its average diameter should be about 100 mm and optimal concentrations should be determined during the project work. On the other hand, particle diameters should not be too large to avoid surface condensation with fast gravitational fall. Therefore for practice, the fast methods for measuring natural sand’s parameters having lognormal size distribution are needed. The next step is the selection methods for grains with optimal sizes that should be found and tested for convenience in practice. In addition, hydrophobic solutions could be used in advance to repel moisture, and development of appropriate methods for rapid wetting of the large masses of sand granules with this solution and their drying is necessary to develop in the laboratory, taking into account the application for future practice. To determine the result, it is necessary to develop special techniques for observing/measuring the flight dynamics for particles in air flow with high humidity in laboratory chamber. Therefore, one of the first goals of the project is to separate these two old/new technologies for skillfully sand particles manage in humid air in order to get the desired result in a future at any real atmosphere.
2. Measurements in the laboratory chamber should allow to determine changes in the velocity of movement of the air flow with the addition of sand particles, The dynamics of the particles and a flow will demonstrate attenuation to proof a hurricane weakening after treatment, and in accordance with the preliminary calculations. These measurements should allow to identify changes for hurricane parameters as follows: Re number; the tangential and radial velocity components for the vortex at different heights of the cross section of the vortex chamber to vary them in experiments; Rayleigh number, Ra, that defines the relationship between buoyancy and viscosity; control the condensations and heat dissipation processes to evaluate the friction energy by sand introducing into (wet or dry) air flow, and etc.
3. The attenuation energy, E, was calculated on the base on Stokes friction of the sand grains using algorithm by our team. The introduced sand volume is 1000 cubic meters, wind speeds in the epicenter of modern hurricane are Va = 30 - 60 m/s, particle velocities were carried out using different approaches in science literature. Calculated results of the method’s attenuation energy almost coincide with all (three) noted approaches for particles velocity calculation ; the 10% attenuation of hurricane wind velocity can be achieved reliable due to introducing the 1000 m3 of sand well in advance, at least one day before the hurricane arrives at the shore. If it is possible to find a convenient method of hydrophobic processing of sand so as not to separate small particles (from 1 micron), then this model shows the possibility of 100% attenuation of a hurricane after its processing.
4. Other similar methods of impacting the atmosphere near the hurricane will be analyzed to attenuate it. Firstly, sand can be added not only in the hurricane center, but also far from it, in atmosphere over warm coastal waters to block this path of hurricane to the coast. The mechanism in this case will be that heavy particles will decrease the upward flow of air & prevent the great mass of water vapor replenishing the hurricane clouds. If the precipitation in the hurricane exceeds the sum of evaporation from the ocean surface, then hurricane water supplies will be depleted. Secondly, adding more heavy particles delays the development of turbulent clouds. A similar method has been used during many years to prevent the unwelcome rain. At last, not only particles of sand, but also raindrops create friction relative to air that is similar to grains of sand. An additionally stimulated precipitation also leads to the dissipation of hurricane energy; therefore, active impacts to increase the precipitation from the hurricane are advisable over the ocean but far from shores.
5. In the result, the proposed sand’s method is a perspective and not of high cost. The noted method for hurricane power decrease can involve an additional nonlinear mechanisms leading to fast general weakening of the hurricane, they will be analyzed in detail. The method can be used for hurricanes or tornado. However, before realtime application it will be necessary to perform additional studies and laboratory experiments. Basically, work on the method of introducing sand into a hurricane will be contained in several major parts as follows:
Development of detailed theoretical models with the constant inclusion of new processes and updated data from laboratory experiments.
Plan for construction of a laboratory stand of small size (within the room). It should be able to measure the individual key parameters of the proposed method of damping a hurricane after introduction of calculated amount of sand grains at different parameters in the environment.
Determination of the optimal regimes of operation for the laboratory unit to get evidence and experimental proof for the method efficiency.
Pre-theoretical optimization of the main parameters to be measured in chamber (velocity of the air flow, velocity of particles and components of this velocity in three coordinates, heating and condensation energy, the presence or absence of condensation at different humidity, etc.)
Determination of optimal measuring instruments for equipping an experimental camera.
Experimental stand construction.
Conducting the first experiments.
The working plan.
T.1. Development of a method for rapid assessment of the distribution of sand particles by size using photometric and computerized image processing methods, and etc. Theoretical consideration the methods of sorting the natural sands for further easy-to-practice utilization.
T.2. Analysis of the dynamics of water condensation on the surface of sand particles, depending on size and surface material of particles, depending on water super saturation, temperature and velocity of air flow.
T3. Analysis of heat generation processes due to friction (in dry or wet air) depending on the ensemble composition, dynamics of particles motion, in dry air flow and in the presence of different volumes of condensation.
T.4. Development of methods for predicting the dynamics of rotation for the sand particle ensemble and time to the partial sedimentation inside air flow.
T.5. Development of the methods for predicting the behavior of particles in real air streams. Additional required parameters of air flow will be used from additional radar or satellite data. Evaluation of hurricane attenuation as a result of sand’s addition to the hurricane flow.
T.6. Examples with numerical calculations will be performed.
E1. laboratory stand development should be performed for key experiments with sand grains motion inside hurricane flow. The layout should have own making mechanical system for creating driven air vortex, variation of the flow velocities in wide interval, and also creation of air humidity (or oversaturation) at different temperatures.
E2. The stand will have sealed chamber with a size of about 1 cubic meter, it should have special mechanical system for introducing of the grains assembles in this air flow to fly.
E3. The experimental stand will have additional measuring system: the visual registration (camera, video recorder), and also system for waighing the sand grains with or without surface water.
E.4. In additional to mentioned above paragraphs, the next related topics are necessary at first stage of proposal method. Within these works it is necessary to choose the best way to filter natural sand in order to choose a group with the desired dimensions. The technologies for separation of small particles from natural compositions should be attracted: it’s necessary ensuring a sufficiently large size of hydrophobic particles to avoid premature drop-out an artificial additive due to fast water condensation on smallest dust with result rain increase.
E5. The optimization of methods for measuring of average particle diameter and size range should be developed with fast computer processing of the result in order for both mentioned technologies (E4) to be conveniently applied in practice.
E6. It’s necessary study the hydrophobic solutions such as silicones so water cannot condense on the grain surfaces; the technology for appropriate preliminary sand treatment should be developed including fast drying (after wetting with a solution) for a large mass of sand.
E7. It is also possible to manufacture artificial small balls of hydrophobic material, for example Teflon or other plastic. This artificial material is possible as a fast and convenient alternative to natural sand, but only in emergency cases.
E8. Conducting serial laboratory experiments with a variation of various parameters will be performed.
Who will take these actions?
Advanced Data Mining Intl., USA,http://advdmi.com. The ADMi--Messrs. John B Cook (PE, CEO), Edwin Roehl Jr., and Ms. Ruby Daamen engineers each have between 28 and 38 years experience in working with water quality, soil quality and meteorological data. Further, ADMi has developed sophisticated models to predict climate change effects, water quality run-off impacts, water resources, soil contamination, and similar applications. A complete set of known Methods for precipitation enhancement have been reviewed widely in the literature. More particularly, fundamental requirements of the treatment of middle-altitude cloud formation, and the experience gained from the demonstration projects will be evaluated in greater detail. Several persons, including Drs. T. Tulaikova and S. Amirova have significant working experience with series first publications in this area of special expertise in theory and cloud experiments. Dr. Paul Comet has substantial expertise in chemical kinetics and applied physics. Thus, all of these various talents will be molded together for the project team’s success.
Where will these actions be taken?
For the first key experiments places at North Caroline and South Carolina , USA. These sites would be near and far from Atlantic Ocean to use different cloud types in experiments.
Firstly, new experimental stand will be developed and located at our laboratory, so this main part is a special chamber with air (and sand) flow and additional measuring equipment. The research team will create algorithms and special devises to produce and handle all experiments in account of a winds/weather/LWC.
To perform future field’s experiments will require the use of a small aircraft, and potential pilots and equipment have been determined. New or proven dosing equipment for aerosol spraying will be placed on an airplane. For ana;ysis and calculations , the mass of reagent applied, the predicted rainfall quantity and winds.
In addition, specify the country or countries where these actions will be taken.
What impact will these actions have on greenhouse gas emissions and/or adapting to climate change?
The main advantage of the proposed method is that it will be possible to weaken the power of the hurricane over the ocean, in advance. Therefore, when the hurricane reaches the shore, it will have a weakened windy force and the height of waves and less intensity of precipitation, so therefore less flooding.
Therefore, most of the financial resources that are now being used to eliminate the consequences of hurricane, will be economized by this method utilization.
What are other key benefits?
Market size for developed technolofy can be as large as needed for local region, or applied on a global scale.
What are the proposal’s projected costs?
The project budget is 3 million dollars for 3 – 5 years of the technology development. These finances will be spent on the following items:
-The salary payment for (10) scientists and/or engineers working as needed over the three-year project schedule;
-The cost for manufacture of special devices;
- Purchase of reagents and materials to create experimental chamber;
-The purchase of the special analytical equipment ;
- Development of new models and detailed calculations; report on demonstration testing.
The first stage (I) aims to work on the theoretical justification and modeling (1- 3 years).Stage II is devoted to the experimental implementation of the method in laboratory (1-3 years) and in real wind/clouds by experiments. Stage III proposes the introduction of developed technologies on a national and global scale at different cases of weather/climate/regions (3 -5 years).
About the author(s)
Authors of this project are ready to cooperation with other profile organizations or universities in the case of additional external finances to get fast development of this actual concept.
John B. Cook, PE and engineer, has been the CEO for ADMi LLC for the past twelve years. Formerly Director of Engineering, COO and CEO of Charleston (S.C.) Water System. He has developed computerized models for water and wastewater treatment processes, and as President of the Cooper River Water Users Association, oversaw development of the 3-D EFDC model and waste load allocation for industrial and municipal users. He has also been responsible for overseeing to successful implementation, the planning, design, and construction administration of approximately $750 million in major capital projects for utility applications. He has graduate university degrees in engineering mechanics and environmental engineering.
Edwin A. Roehl, Jr., ADMi Chief Technical Officer, engineer, and co-founder. He has an expertise level in: Advanced process engineering using AI, signal processing and multivariate analysis, heavy industrial and environmental applied R&D, financial analysis, process economics, and decision support systems.
Ph.D. Tamara Tulaikova, leading researcher in practical application of physics. She is an author of 140 published papers, 7 patents and 5 monographs in mentioned science area.
Ph.D. Svetlana Amirova is a co-author of 4 monographs, 18 scientific papers. Visiting Assistant Professor, Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Mathematics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, USA. Ph.D
Ph.D. Paul A. Comet, leading-edge geochemist and chemical researcher.
Ruby C. Daamen, engineer with Advanced Data Mining Intl, LLC. Mrs. Daamen has over 30 years experience in software development and data analysis, event detection, etc. She has an electrical engineering degree.
Completed: Anticipating Climate Hazards 2017 How can vulnerable communities best prepare for climate-related hazards, and what new tools can be used to incentivize early action?
1. John B. Cook, Tamara V. Tulaykova, Svetlana R. Amirova, Paul A. Comet, Edwin A. Roehl, Jr.2019: Airborn introduction of sand to hurricanes in order to reduce their power. (in press).
2. Edwin A. Roehl Jr., Ruby C. Daamen, John B. Cook, Estimating seawater intrusion impacts on coastal intakes as a result of climate change. Journal of American Water Works Association,http://dx.doi.org/10.5942/jawwa2013.105.0131
3. Tulaykova, T. and C. Amirova, 2018: Evaluation of the possibility of reducing wind power in the epicentre of the hurricane due to additional introduction of the calculated mass of sand. Science Intensive Technologies (Moscow, Rus.), 19, 21-28.