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Please find below the judging results for your proposal.

Finalist Evaluation

Judges'' comments


Proposal: From Agro-Waste to aSustainable Income Contest: Land Use: Agriculture, Forestry, Waste Management Thank you for your contest entry. Thank you for your contest entry. We appreciate your willingness to share your ideas and also the time and effort you put into developing a proposal and submitting it to the contest. We have reviewed your proposal and found that it contained intriguing elements; however, have chosen not to advance it to the next round of competition. We encourage you to keep developing your idea. Transfer your proposal to a Workspace to re-open it, make edits, add collaborators, and even submit it into a future contest. You can do so by logging into your account, opening your proposal, selecting the Admin tab, and clicking “Move proposal.” We welcome you to stay involved in the Climate CoLab community: support and comment on proposals that have been named Finalists, and vote during the public voting period to help select the contest’s Popular Choice Winner. Climate CoLab will be opening more contests throughout the year and you are welcome to submit your proposal to those contests as well. Keep up the great work. We hope that by working together, we all can create solutions that wouldn’t otherwise be possible. Sincerely, Contest Fellows If there are additional comments from the Judges & Fellows, they will be included below.

The proposal does not link to GHG emissions reductions or demonstrate how it will impact GHG emissions. It focuses more on outcomes related to agriculture, food security and other development topics.

Semi-Finalist Evaluation

Judges'' ratings


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Judges'' comments


The proposal is well thought out and we appreciate that you've considered the logistical aspects of the project as well as the cultural and economic aspects. We also believe that the proposal is replicable if successful and could create widespread change in current practices. We are pleased to advance this proposal to the next stage with the following comments:
Bioconversion is generally a good idea, if it can be carried out efficiently. During the next round it would be good to identify a specific village to show that it is really feasible - including what are the actual costs and timeline for such a project.
The GHG emissions reductions should also be clarified.

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Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:41

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Thank you for your kind feedback! We have tried to improvise the proposal according to your requests. Here is the detailed list of justifications of the proposal-

1. Yield Specification of Mushroom
2. GHG Emission Calculation
3. Reasons for Stubble Burning
4. Potential Mapping - No of farmers and No of Labourers in India
5. Timeline of Proposal
6. Financial Cycle 1
7. Financial Cycle 2
8. Financial Cycle 3
9. Production Cost
10. Total Project Budget
11. Cost-Benefit Analysis
12. Graphs


Please feel free to reach out on akanksha.ahuja99@gmail.com
Or on Linkedin: www.linkedin.com/in/akanksha-ahuja99
If you have any doubts regarding the justifications below, please let us know.
Thank you again for your suggestions!


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:37

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1. Yield Specification of Mushroom

a) J.N. Buah, G.C. Van der Puije, E.A. Bediako, E.A. Abole and F. Showemimo, 2010. The Growth and Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Different Substrates. Biotechnology, 9: 338-342.

DOI: 10.3923/biotech.2010.338.342

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=biotech.2010.338.342

Like other mushrooms, oyster mushroom can be grown on various agricultural waste with the use of different technologies. In Ghana, the main substrate for the production of mushroom is sawdust. Sawdust is a mixture of shavings from many trees and depending on the type of tree and the amount of lignin present, the growth of the spawn can be inhibited. Moreover, with the increasing expansion in the poultry industry, there is high demand for sawdust, thus making it difficult and expensive for commercial mushroom growers to get the sawdust. One farm produce that is easily available in Ghana at all times is the corn cob. During the main harvesting period, corn cobs are in abundance and farmers dispose of them by burning. If grounded corn cob can support the growth of oyster mushroom, then it would serve as a cheap source of substrate for mushroom growers.

 

b) PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM USING SIMPLIFIED TECHNOLOGY

Authors:  M.H. El-Kattan, Gad E.M. Salama

DOI:  10.17660/ActaHortic.1996.434.49

URL: http://www.actahort.org/books/434/434_49.htm

Pleurotus ostreatus. Cultivation studies were conducted in a greenhouse at Mushroom Res. Farm, Protected Cultivation Center, ARC, Dokki. Soaking in hot water, as a simplified heat treatment, was adapted for the preparation of the different combinations of the waste materials.

Both yield and quality of oyster mushroom have been improved by supplementing rice straw with legume waste. The highest beneficial effect on yield was achieved when rice straw was supplemented with 50% legume waste. The biological efficiency, i.e. kg of fresh mushroom harvested from 100 kg of dry substrate, were 121.3 and 116.2 for P. ostreatus and P. florida, respectively.

 


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:20

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2. GHG Emission Calculation

 

a) India:
Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 13.7% of the GDP (gross domestic product) in 2013, about 50% of the workforce.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_India)


It's easy to cultivate and I'll explain the math to justify the calculations of GHG emissions.

According to papers, the Total crop residue in the year 2014 was 620.44 million tonne per year. This approximates to about 5% of the total GHG emissions by the country. Over the successive decades as we spread this movement and educate people about alternatives such as mushroom cultivation till the estimated adoption of 100% of the proposal by 2050 we can reduce the GHG emissions by 5% in India and similarly in other proposed countries.

By 2020, 25% villages will be worked upon. That is approximately 5000 villages.

Each village has approximately targeted 24,000 kg of husk.

The literature mentions that on an average 300 C02 is released per 5kg of 12.6% moisture crop residue burning or we can extend that to 10kg at 23.6% moisture.

In 1 typical village:

Oyster Mushroom Cultivation: 6000 kg of husk

Sold to markets: 18,000 kg of husk

 

That means, 180 kg C/kg for Mushrooms and 540 kg C/kg for redirecting it to markets.
For 1 village that is 720 Carbon emissions.

720 x 5000 = 3.6 million tonnes of carbon emissions prevented if 25% adopted.
These are only approximated calculations but are highly realistic.

India has over 6,40,000 villages (http://villagesinindia.in/) which means-
(6,40, 000/5000 ) x 3.6 million = 460.8 million tonnes of carbon emissions if nationally adopted.

 

b) Pakistan
About 25% of Pakistan's agriculture accounts for about 21% of GDP and employs about 43% of the labour force. In Pakistan, the most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Pakistan)

Assuming every other country has similar agro waste production as that of India

Number of Villages : 50, 588 or rounding off to 50,600.
Since, we calculated 180 kg C/kg for Mushrooms and 540 kg C/kg for redirecting it to markets.For 1 village - 720 Carbon emissions are prevented.

Pakistan Potential Reduction: 50,600 x 720 = 36432000 tonnes of carbon emissions if nationally adopted.

c) Bangladesh

Agriculture is the largest employment sector in Bangladesh. As of 2016, it employs 47% of the total labour force and comprises 16% of the country's GDP.  With 35.8 million metric tons produced in 2000, rice is Bangladesh's principal crop.In comparison to rice, wheat output in 1999 was 1.9 million metric tons. Population pressure continues to place a severe burden on productive capacity, creating a food deficit, especially of wheat. Foreign assistance and commercial imports fill the gap.
 

Underemployment remains a serious problem, and a growing concern for Bangladesh's agricultural sector will be its ability to absorb additional manpower. Finding alternative sources of employment will continue to be a daunting problem for future governments, particularly with the increasing numbers of landless peasants who already account for about half the rural labour force.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Bangladesh)


Assuming every other country has similar agro waste production as that of India

Number of Villages in Bangladesh : 68,000 (http://www.soesju.org/arsenic/days3.htm)
Since, we calculated 180 kg C/kg for Mushrooms and 540 kg C/kg for redirecting it to markets.For 1 village - 720 Carbon emissions are prevented.

Bangladesh Potential Reduction: 68,000 x 720 =48960000 tonnes of carbon emissions if nationally adopted.
 

d) Vietnam

The relaxation of the state monopoly on rice exports transformed the country into the world’s second or third largest rice exporter.In 2004, agriculture and forestry accounted for 21.8 percent of Vietnam's gross domestic product (GDP), and between 1994 and 2004, the sector grew at an annual rate of 4.1 percent.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Vietnam)


Assuming every other country has similar agro waste production as that of India

Number of Villages in Vietnam : 9,111 rural communes or rounding it off to 9100 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rural_commune_(Vietnam)
Since, we calculated 180 kg C/kg for Mushrooms and 540 kg C/kg for redirecting it to markets.For 1 village - 720 Carbon emissions are prevented.

Vietnam Potential Reduction: 9100 x 720 = 6552000 tonnes of carbon emissions if nationally adopted.

e) Sri Lanka

The primary form of agriculture in Sri Lanka is rice production. Rice is cultivated during Maha and Yala seasons. Out of the total population in Sri Lanka, 31.8% engages in agricultural activities. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 18% of the GDP (gross domestic product) in 2014, about 26.4% of the workforce or employment.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Sri_Lanka)

Assuming every other country has similar agro waste production as that of India

Number of Villages in Sri Lanka : 27 districts
(http://www.statistics.gov.lk/agriculture/Paddy%20Statistics/PaddyStats.htm)
Since, we calculated 180 kg C/kg for Mushrooms and 540 kg C/kg for redirecting it to markets.For 1 village - 720 Carbon emissions are prevented.

Sri Lanka Potential Reduction: 27 x 720 = 19440 tonnes of carbon emissions if nationally adopted.

 


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:07

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3. Reasons for Stubble Burning
"The effects of crop stubble being burnt have been well documented, with a survey pegging that approximately 84 per cent of people in the NCT face various health issues due to the smoke emanating from paddy stubble being burnt in Punjab and Haryana.

How do we solve the problem of paddy stubble being burnt?

One, find out why the paddy stubble is still being burnt. Identify the reasons why farmers still prefer to burn the stubble rather than transporting them to a power plant.

Two, make it more economical for farmers to transport the stubble. This can be done by opening more facilities to dispose of them, improving connectivity, and reducing overheads through minor subsidies or incentives.

Three, penalise farmers who burn the stubble. The Amarinder Singh government in Punjab needs to take this seriously as a bulk of the crop stubble being burnt is from Punjab.

Four, rope in the private sector to set up more power plants to dispose of the crop stubble. A privately owned entity will certainly put in more effort to collect crop stubble as a raw material than a government body."

(https://swarajyamag.com/ideas/we-told-you-so-its-not-diwali-delhis-smog-comes-from-stubble-burning)

 

Our proposal was designed before the article was published and we aim to implement each of the steps.
a)We identified why they burn it

1. It's easy to get rid of when it’s burned

2. It doesn't take much time and allows them to put their efforts into sowing the crop for the next season

3. They can't afford the labour to dispose of the stubble and the machines which are used to dispose it aren’t affordable by most farmers

4. They want to have 4 crops a year hence they are running short on time. If they don’t, the loans taken by the farmer can be difficult to pay off

5. Close minded farmers and follow the crowd hence they see nothing wrong in burning crop residue, a practice that is ongoing for ages.

6. Punjab and Haryana are relatively greener areas hence the pollution doesn't affect the air that much but since they both are near Pakistan and are a part of India as well, cities with fewer trees get affected the worst.

 

b) We created a business process mapping to make sure all aspects of crop residue burning as well as employability are covered. Our process included the transportation of products and husk to end users using online markets as well trucks in the North Indian region.

 

c) The crop residue, 2000kg from each contract is divided into two parts- 500kg for mushrooms and 1500kg for sale.The 1500kg can be transported to power plants and complete the whole chain of problems arising due to stubble burning.
 


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:58

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4. Potential Mapping - No of farmers and No of Labourers in India

Total Number of Farmers: 450 million (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farmers%27_suicides_in_India)

Total Number of Agro Labourers: 94% of 487 million = 457 million
In 2012, there were around 487 million workers in India, the second largest after China.Of these over 94 percent work in unincorporated, unorganised enterprises ranging from pushcart vendors to home-based diamond and gem polishing operations.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labour_in_India)


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:41

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Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
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Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
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Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
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5. Timeline of Proposal
July 2017:

Initiation of Phase 1:
-Research
-Survey and Awareness

September 2017:
Initiation of Phase 2
- Making contract and understanding labourer and farmer perspectives

October 2017:
Initiation of Phase 3
-Training and Proposal of Farmer Laborer Contracts
- Local Entrepreneurial Model

December 2017:
Start of Financial Cycle 1
- Distribution to Market

April 2018:
-Harvest Major Crop
-Start of Mushroom Cultivation

June 2018:
Start of Financial Cycle 2
- Distribution to Markets
- Payback of Investment

October 2018:
-Harvest Major Crop
-Start of Mushroom Cultivation

December 2018:
Financial Cycle 3 Begins
- Distribution to local, urban and online markets
- Higher profits by expansion to urban markets


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:43

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Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:31

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6. Financial Cycle 1


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
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7. Financial Cycle 2


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:25

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8. Financial Cycle 3


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
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9. Production Cost


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:56

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10. Total Project Budget


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
05:28

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11. Cost Benefit Analysis


Akanksha Ahuja

Nov 16, 2017
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12. Graphs