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We created the zooxanthellaes that are resistant to extreme temperature increase


Description

Summary

Indonesia is one of the Coral Triangle Country. Sadly, according to the results of monitoring activities in 1,076 stations all over Indonesia indicate that at the end of 2011, about 5.6% of coral reefs were in excellent condition, 27.0% in good condition, 36.9% in fair condition, and 30.8% in poor condition. One of the threats that happening is coral bleaching. The phenomena of coral bleaching has reported in almost all areas in Indonesian sea.

In Wakatobi, 65% of coral reefs have been bleaching because of the sea rising temperature. It affected the endosymbiosis of coral and Zooxanthellae. As we know that coral have a symbiotic relationship with microscopic algae, called zooxhantella that live in their tissue. These algae are the coral’s primary food source and give them their colour. So, when the sea temperature rising, zooxanthellae left the body of polyp and make it sturfing. This condition effect on coral  bleaching.

The primary cause of cloral bleaching is an increasing temperatures on the sea water due to global warming. In addition, exposure to excessive sunlight also contribute to bleaching in shallow-water corals. Storm Rapidly generated precipitation can dilute the ocean water and runoff can carry polutants, these can bleach near-shore corals. Not only that, exposure to the air during extreme low tides can also cause bleaching in shallow corals.


It is getting worse by the threat of El Nino that swept the world in 2015. Reflecting on the tragedy of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1998 has triggered the biggest coral bleaching ever recorded worldwide. An estimated amount 18% of coral reefs in Southeast Asia has been damaged. Seribu Islands (the northern part of Jakarta’s sea), approximately 90-95% of coral reefs to a depth of 25 m dying. Two years later, in 2000, the coral reefs in the Seribu Islands experienced a recovery, with 20-30% live coral cover.


Which plan do you select for China?

Value not set.

Which plan do you select for India?

Value not set.

Which plan do you select for the United States?

Value not set.

Which plan do you select for Europe?

Value not set.

Which plan do you select for other developing countries?

Value not set.

Which plan do you select for other developed countries?

Value not set.

What additional cross-regional proposals are included in your plan, if any?

The Regional which had been Chosen are in Bali Barat National Park, Bunaken Island, Derawan Island, Komodo Island, Nusapenida, Wakatobi and Raja Ampat. The reason why we choose those places because according to the data that we got from Ministry of Martime and Natural Resosurces of the Republic of Indonesia, the coral bleaching happened on those areas. But, actually we can do same action to all over the world which have a same problem about coral bleaching, like Mariana Island, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, and Florida.

Not only that, this idea can be applied to solve the problem of coral bleaching occurred in developing countries in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries, which have lost 18% of ecosystems of coral reefs disaster because El nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 1997-1998. Besides applied to the countries of South East Asia, this idea can also be applied in the coral triangle countries such as Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands which are included in the suffer area of Threats Damage to Coral Reefs acute. in this region the damage level reached almost 90% cuased by human activity by 85% and 5% caused by coral bleaching effect.



How do the regional and cross-sectoral plans above fit together?

1. Government Agencies

The position of the government in this project is very crucial, because the coral reefs policy conservation depends on the government, in addition to the financial support of local authorities is also very significant for this project. In addition to the socio-economic position of the government becomes important when they involve research institutions owned by the government that would serve great in the research process and the multiplication of algae that have to do with the massive coral bleaching, so that the problems can be resolved soon.

2. Companies

Discuss marine conservation, necessarily involving the company, because it directly or indirectly in contact with the sea, in an effort to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or in their manufacturing process, which is based on seafood as a staple.

3. Non-Profit Organization

Non-Profit Organizations’s position is very important, especially for NGOs Position, research institutions and universities. NGO position is very important in this project, especially in the persuasion process with the local community, analysis of coral reef damage, and the conservation process that we can not do alone. While the position of the research institute and the university are very important in the effort to produce the scientist and productive engineer in this project.

4. Local People

Most of the world's biodiversity is located in residential areas. Effective conservation can not be achieved unless the people who live and depend on the region becomes an integral part of the conservation process. By relying on cooperation with local communities in preserving some of the most critical biological ecosystems and endangered ecological management, and ensure the well while continuing to support local economic development.


Explanation of the emissions scenario calculated in the Impact tab


What are the plan’s key benefits?

1. Environmentally friendly

This technique does not involve an external tool at all, so it does not disturb the environment and do not damage the surrounding ecosystem.

2. Preventing the extinction

The thermostable phytase (phy) gene makes a zooxhantellae resistant to high temperatures triggered by global warming or El Nino tragedy.

3. The balance of the ecosystem

This idea of ​​pure involves the natural processes in the living body, the insertion of genes into the algae does not interfere with the lives of algae and ecosystem resilience.

4. Effective and efficient

Algae have the ability to divide very high, so it does not take a long time to implement this concept

5. Sustainable

To prevent the coral bleaching on this idea, we use synthetic biology techniques utilizing the algae, because algae division process that even unstoppable, allowing the project to continue so that it can be run on a large scale and for a long time.


What are the plan’s costs?

The Research and Development (R&D) of this project is require fund amount USD 50.000


What are the key challenges to enacting this plan?


Timeline

Years 1-3
Mapping the structured areas experiencing coral bleaching in Indonesia and Southeast Asia

Years 1-3
Conducting the gene analysis process and the potential insertion of thermostable phytase (phy) genes into the zooxhantellae

Year 3-5
Conduct research of genetic engineering to insert the thermostable phytase (phy) biobrick

Year 5-7
Cooperation initiation with the academy, business, and goverment (ABG) in the ASEAN

Year 5-10
Applications and spread of genetically modified zooxhantellae to corals that suffered bleaching

Year 5-10
Monitoring and periodic evaluation


References

Alamendah (2015) Pemutihan Terumbu Karang Makin Mengancam. Retrieved from <http://alamendah.org/2015/01/20/pemutihan-terumbu-karang-makin-mengancam/> [Accesed on 30 August 2015]

Burkee, R., et al., (2002). Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia. Washington DC: World Resources Institute

Kim, Y., et al. (1998) Cloning of the thermostable phytase gene (phy) from Bacillus sp. DS11 and its overexpression in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters 162 (1998) 185-191

National Geographic (2014) Pemutihan Terumbu Karang Semakin Parah. Retrieved from <http://nationalgeographic.co.id/berita/2014/12/pemutihan-terumbu-karang-semakin-parah> [Accesed on 29 August 2015]

_________________ (2015) 2020 Nanti, 20 Juta Hektar Laut akan Dikonservasi. Retrieved from <http://nationalgeographic.co.id/berita/2015/08/2020-nanti-20-juta-hektar-laut-akan-dikonservasi> [Accesed on 25 August 2015]

NOAA-Coral Reef Conservation Programme (2015) Coral Bleaching. Retrieved from <http://coralreef.noaa.gov/> [Accesed on 31 August 2015]

World Resorces Institute (2013) 85% Terumbu Karang di Coral Triangle Tergolong “Terancam”. Retrieved from <http://www.wri.org/news/2013/04/85-terumbu-karang-di-coral-triangle-tergolong-%E2%80%9Cterancam%E2%80%9D> [Accesed on 29 August 2015]