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Urine contains Nitrogen and Phosphorus. It can be used to grow Diatom Algae. Diatoms consume CO2 and are natural food for fish.



Most waterways in India, lakes, rivers and coastal waters, are polluted due to sewage and partly from fertilizer runoff.

Sewage is regarded as a pollutant since it contains nutrients, Nitrogen and Phosphorus.

CO2, N and P are the main inputs for photosynthesis. 

Land to grow trees is difficult to find, due to the growing population.

So photosynthesis in water is a better solution.

Gross photosynthesis is about 105 Billion tons of Carbon consumption per year. Of this ~ 46% ( 48 Billion tons ) is in water and 54% ( 57 Billion tons ) on land.

Of the total of about 48 Billion tons of Carbon consumed by aquatic organisms, Diatoms account for ~ 23.5 Billion tons. Thus, Diatom Algae are the largest and best group of Phytoplankton / micro-algae that grow in water. Ref :, See the 'Global Significance' para.

Diatoms are the best food for fish.

Decline in fish in the Arabian Sea has been attributed to the decline in Diatom Algae due to sewage from Mumbai and Karachi.


Shift in Arabian Sea Plankton May Threaten Fisheries

"Until recently, photosynthetic diatoms supported the Arabian Sea food chain. Zooplankton grazed on the diatoms, a type of algae, and were in turn eaten by fish. In the early 2000s, it all changed. The researchers began to see vast blooms of Noctiluca and a steep drop in diatoms and dissolved oxygen in the water column. Within a decade, Noctiluca had virtually replaced diatoms at the base of the food chain, marking the start of a colossal ecosystem shift."

Oxygen is required to treat sewage, to satisfy the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and keep Dissolved Oxygen (DO) level high. Oxygen enables aerobic bacteria to grow and prevents anaerobic bacteria from growing. Aerobic bacteria breakdown sewage.

We have a patented product to grow Diatom Algae, called Nualgi i.e., Nutrition for Algae. This is invented by Mr T Sampath Kumar of Bangalore. Indian Patent # 209364 dated 26/08/2007. 

Nualgi is manufactured by Mr T Sampath Kumar's firm Nualgi Nanobiotech in Bangalore, India. It is being used by many people all over the world and we have distributors in USA, Australia, China, Korea, etc. At present it is being used mainly in private waterbodies, like Aquariums, Aquaculture ponds and a few lakes. 

We are promoting the use of Nualgi and Diatoms for Sewage Treatment, Lake and River Remediation and have submitted proposals to various Government Agencies like Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Delhi Jal Board, National Mission for Ganga Rejuvenation, National Institute of Hydrology, etc.

The sewage from 1.25 Billion Indians can be used to grow ~ 50 Million tons of Diatom Algae per year.

This will enable growing at least 5 million tons of Fish.

Thus all the waterbodies in India can be kept clean and huge amount of CO2 captured and the increase in fish catch will help pay for the cost of Nualgi used.



Which proposals are included in your plan and how do they fit together?

Nualgi - Diatom Algae - Oxygen

This proposal in the Energy Water contest is about use of Nualgi to grow Diatom Algae to treat sewage and thus reduce the energy consumption required to aerate sewage. If sewage is properly treated then it can be recycled and thus the cost of pumping water over long distances is reduced.

Nualgi - Diatom Algae for Sewage Treatment

This proposal in the Waste management contest is also about use of Nualgi to grow Diatom Algae to treat sewage in a better and more economical manner than at present.

Explanation of the emissions scenario calculated in the Impact tab

Urine of each person contains about 8 grams of Nitrogen per day.

Thus the total N in the urine from all the peopl in the world is about 50,000 tons per day.

This can grow about 116 Million tons of Diatoms per year, in terms of Carbon consumed.

This is assuming that the N is used only once, however in waterways nutrients are reused many times, so the actual Diatom growth is much more. 

Urea used by farmers world wide is about 100 million tons per years, a large portion is not consumed by the crops and this flows into rivers and oceans.

If 25% is assumed to be the wastage then the total amount of N from fertilizer run off is about 25 million tons per year.

This would help capture another 100 Million tons of Carbon if used only once. 

What are the plan’s key benefits?

If our proposal is implemented sewage will be treated in a better manner.

All waterbodies in the world will be clean and well oxygenated with plenty of fish.

The amount of electricity being consumed to run aerators in Sewage Treatment Plants will be reduced substantially.

Treated sewage can be reused and thus cost of pumping water over long distances can be reduced.

Fish in lakes and oceans will increase.

What are the plan’s costs?

There is no net cost for our proposal.

The cost of Nualgi will be about $ 100 per liter and this will be recovered from sale of fish.

If 1 liter of Nualgi helps grow 50 to 100 kgs of Fish and these are sold at $ 1 to $ 2 per kg, the entire cost of Nualgi can be recovered.

There are no negative side effects of use of Nualgi, it is tested and confirmed to be non-toxic by Indian Institute of Toxicological Research, Lucknow.


What are the key challenges to enacting this plan?

Resistance to new ideas is the main challenge we are facing for past few years, since 2005.

We have made good progress in convincing 1000s of customers and now have distributors in USA, Australia, etc. for Nualgi and we are confident that we will be able to convince all concerned in the years to come.

No government in the world appears to have a systematic policy on how to evaluate new ideas and inventions to confirm their performance and decide on putting them to use. In the absence of a good policy we are finding it difficult to convince Governments about Nualgi.

Approval of International Maritime Organisation would be required to use Nualgi in Oceans. Obtaining this is the main challenge. 


Nualgi is being used by individuals, in private waterbodies, since 2005.

We have submitted proposals to Government agencies all over the world and hope to secure their approval. Once this is received we expect use of Nualgi to increase.

Approval of International Maritime Organisation would be required to use Nualgi in Oceans. Obtaining this is the main challenge. We will obtain the approval by demonstrating the performance and safety of Nualgi in many locations all over the world.


Related plans

Nualgi - Diatom Algae - Oxygen

Nualgi - Diatom Algae for Sewage Treatment


Diatom Algae A Natural Cleaner

A new novel solution to grow diatom algae in large natural water bodies and its impact on CO2 capture and nutrient removal

Culture medium optimization and lipid profi ling of Cylindrotheca, a lipid- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich pennate diatom and potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid